The difference between SFP and SFP+, XFP, QSFP, GBIC, BIDI

Nowadays, as the core optoelectronic device in the optical communication network, the types of the optical transceiver module is increasing, and its functions also becoming more and more complicated. Different types of optical modules are emerging such as SFP, SFP +, XFP, QSFP, GBIC and BIDI. We’ll take SFP optical module which is commonly used in the market as an example to talk about the difference among these similar optical modules.

SFP optical module, which also known as small package pluggable optical module, and used in the telecommunications industry and optical communications. The interface of the SFP optical module is LC which the size is small, suitable for high-density cabling environment. Meanwhile, SFP has specifications that a variety of network electronic device vendors to support, mainly to support Gigabit Ethernet and fiber-optic network communications. The electrical interface of it is 20pin Gold-finger, data signal interface is basically same as SFF module’s.


The difference between SFP and SFP+
The appearance of SFP+ is similar with SFP, it also uses a 20-pin Gold-finger electrical interface. Unlike SFP, SFP + optical modules support a maximum rate up to 10 Gbps, while SFP mostly only support 1Gbps.


The difference between SFP and XFP
Compared to SFP, XFP is mainly used in miniaturization and low-cost 10G solution, and the size of XFP is larger than SFP, the transmission distance up to 80km. Currently, most of XFPs are replaced by SFP +.


The difference between SFP and GBIC
GBIC stands for Gigabit Interface Converter, which means a Gigabit interface converter that converts a gigabit electrical signal into an optical signal. GBIC is about twice the size of the SFP, but the function is similar with the SFP optical module, now a large portion of the market share is replaced by SFP optical modules.


The difference between SFP and QSFP
QSFP uses a four-channel SFP interface, which is to meet the market needs for higher density pluggable solutions. It supports the SFF-8436 MSA and IEEE802.3ba 40GBASE-LR4 protocols. The transfer rate is up to 40 Gbps, far beyond of SFP, and mainly used for switches, routers and host adapter bus.


The difference between SFP and BIDI
BIDI is a single fiber bi-directional optical module, and that is using wavelength division multiplexing technology to achieve a two-way optical fiber signal transmission, and therefore there is only one fiber optic jack. The conventional SFP optical module is dual-fiber with two fiber-optic jacks. BIDI optical modules need to be used in pairs, the biggest advantage of BIDI is to save fiber resources and reduce costs.


Now, we have briefly introduced the difference between SFP and SFP+, XFP, QSFP, GBIC, BIDI, do you have a profound understanding of it? If you want to learn more about it, you always welcomed to check out on Cozlink ( You are not only can access to communications-related knowledge, but can find many excellent performance and inexpensive communications products as well.

Should you find a Cheap Aircon services in Singapore?

Knowledgeable business owners and home owners understand that when it comes to machinery cooling systems, then maintenance is always better than repairs. Having good quality of air conditioning services plan can save the business owners from annoying and repetitive services, reduced cooling and facing scorching summers. Homeowners too, save a lot on their repairs bills that might be caused due to damaged components. There are several companies that suggest getting service contracts on the cooling units to provide the owners with a peace of mind, apart from helping you save money in long run.


A service contract or repair is usually dependent on how extensive services are needed for the air conditioning systems. Generally, it happens that the more extensive damage, the bigger the services are needed and thus, the more is the cost of the services. Businesses are dependents on aircons to get a relaxing environment and more productivity and the homeowners need them to make their houses a place worth living. The intention of getting them services is to stipulate the services and make the machine in superior working order while preserving it from any major breakdown. Having random services selected means you are definitely going to get expensive services, paying more than what you have got or getting non qualified professional servicing your expensive machine and further damage.

Finding cheap aircon services is crucial to save some bucks as you require such services twice a year and it does not makes any sense spending money on something that could have been saved otherwise. It won’t take a long time to find such services, especially in a country like Singapore where such repairs are available at every nook and corner of the city. You can opt for service contracts as they bring you some deals that cost a big amount if purchased individually. Moreover, they come to service your cooling and heating system without needing you to go through the booking process once again.

Maintenance check ups are not optional for ACs as the experts themselves recommend getting the air conditioners repaired twice a year in order to increase their life span. Ignoring or avoiding services will only result in causing internal damage to further extent which will reduce the life span as well as efficiency of your machine.

Though choosing services based on the price factor solely is a sure recipe for disasters, you must check into their services, reviews as well as expertise in working line. Not all cheap services are reliable and vice versa. For example a complete air servicing company include air conditioning supply, installation, regular maintenance, quick response time, repairing and diagnostics services as well as round the clock customer care services that are approachable easily.

Having selected a services that is low on cost as well as services will only make you lose more money in long term. Make wise decisions and go for reliable and trustworthy packages that help you get your machine repaired without much fuss.

FAQs about Governmental Grants in Singapore


Government grants are contribution funds to a company from any government agency to support the initiatives of the government target. These funds are provided for cash payments during the term of a pre-approved project. Usually, they are not refundable, but some may require repayment depending on the success of the project.

There are two main differences between grants and tax credits. First, a government grant is awarded to fund future initiatives or to get a new project off the ground. The grants will not finance projects already completed or in progress, or to refund the fees already paid. Second, a government grant is not a right, and just meeting the eligibility criteria does not guarantee approval. Scholarship programs are limited by the application deadlines and set budgets and can only approve a number of candidates each year.

How to know if my business is eligible?

Each program has different eligibility criteria and standards. Some programs are only available in certain geographic areas or periods of the year or limited to companies of a certain size or industry. Subsidies are not fighting for social assistance businesses – your company’s financial health and stability are considered strongly. You must have at least 15 employees and has been in operation for at least 2 years to be considered a good candidate for grants. You must also have plans for future growth and innovation, focusing on creating new jobs and expansion into new markets. For instance, the CDG grant by SPRING supports companies that are based and registered in Singapore, have more than 30% shares of parent country and a certain amount of turnover and employee count as well. You can check this website for CDG grant details.

How much money can I get a grant?

Depending on the type of sustained activity, incentives can range from $ 5,000 to $ 1,000,000. Grants typically cover a percentage of the eligible project costs (between 15% and 75%) to a maximum amount. The CDG Grant covers up to 70% of the overall cost of Capability development operation.

How much time and effort is required for a grant?

Each program has a unique application process. Often a preliminary application or a meeting with a government representative to select potential candidates is necessary. A full proposal with detailed information about the plans and objectives of the project, the company background and capabilities, and the financial situation is subject to the program facilitator for evaluation. Financial statements of the insurance company, the certificate of incorporation or other supporting documents may also be required for the application. This package must be filed before the project started because applications can take from several days to several months to be processed by the government. It is recommended that you begin your search for funding at least three months before your project. The CDG grant can be applied online and then once approved; you are liable to get the refunds.

Why you might consider hiring Tree Trimming?

tree trimming

Trees are usual to be found all around houses as well as properties and can be sometimes dangerous to you and your family. The modern development has left little scope for the free growth of the trees. You might not even realize that the tree that is growing in your backyard has engulfed higher power chords that are entering your home. In case, there comes heavy rains or storm then it might be lethal to the life of people in home and around. They can result in possible short circuit that can further cause terrible fire and explosion as well. In such ways, hiring professional tree trimming services can become highly valuable and important.

Why tree trimming service? There are several reasons why you should get tree trimming services. Firstly, well-trimmed trees add beauty to your home and landscape. If you are having unwanted trees growth trimming regularly then your garden will appear to be aesthetically beautiful and a hub for playing and resting. It is important to cut out and eliminate the dead and decaying branches. The tree might be causing an obstruction in pathway, driveway or become a home to animals. It is important to trim it down so that there is free passage.

Why hire services: Some people might take up such jobs and hire equipment that they don’t have even knowledge of. With half knowledge, they feel they can handle the situation and deal with all kinds of overgrown trees. What they do not realize is that it requires training as well as little bit of practice to trim them down, rightly! You need to acquire some skills and knowledge to prune them down. In fact, following the safety measures is also crucial. Tree trimming services has not just become a professional business, they now mean serious work.

Professional: If you are facing any kind of tree growth related problems, it is best to look towards experts for help. There are several companies that can help you and solve your problems in best possible ways. It is not very difficult to find one near your home. If not then you can just Google for them in your area and it will produce a list of companies with their contacts and offices location.

Services they offer: The services offered by tree trimming companies include cutting, limber removal, landscaping, tree pruning, stump removal etc. The companies also provide advice on tree grooming and landscaping or they can also help you in clearing off the storm mess.

Several companies also provide services like mountainous areas or regions that are prone to hurricanes, storms, or tornadoes. They come with their own specialized equipment like chain saw, ropes or saws. Apart from this, such companies have their cranes and trucks needed to pick up tree branches and lumber. They train people to work on different regions and kinds of trees, provide them proper knowledge and training on how to handle different situations to clear off. Companies that have expertise charge minimal in return and their help is invaluable.

Guys Who Do White and Black


Have you ever thought on how google search results list the order of websites? Why is it not in alphabetic form or why does it always show the same link whenever I search for this particular word or phrase? There are many questions that can be formed whenever people ask about website popularity and optimization. If you are a website owner, blog writer, or online seller we all owe it to SEO (Search Engine Optimization).

Now, what is SEO or Search Engine Optimization? To say it in a simple way, this is the process of placing your website on top of search engine results and getting people to view and visit your website. The people who do this are called “SEO Guys”. SEO guys may be called differently depending on their job description, they may be called SEO Specialists, SEO Link Builders, SEO Marketers, SEO Professionals, SEO Content Writers and more. They do different things that are interconnected with each other that has a common goal – to get your website visible to the public.

Even if your website or blog has good content this may not be easily seen by many. Some people may see it based on your personal network or contacts but how far can it really reach? If you are wondering why are there only a few people checking out your site, you may be lacking a key component in marketing your website. SEO can be learned through self-study if you are eager to learn and have time to do it yourself but if you are a busy person, you may need to hire someone from the IT field.

SEO guys can make your website shine through different techniques namely, White Hat and Black Hat SEO, just so you know this are two techniques that can be done to make your website popular. Either you have it done from within the codes, link farming and hidden tags (black hat) or with quality content, keyword density, research and more (white hat).

If you are thinking that SEO is only for IT professionals or super techy individuals, you are mistaken. Anyone can be considered as an SEO guy. Anyone can write or start a website but if you learn even just the foundation of Search Engine Optimization and some technical background, you definitely have an advantage and will be even better with some tools available for both SEO guys and practically anyone who wants to use it.

The essential qualities of being an SEO guy is being able to think analytically, at least be familiar with the HTML codes and editors, some experience with your web host provider, know your numbers – and track it, some programming knowledge is a great advantage, and some familiarity on how to manage servers or at the minimum know how it works is a great skill too.

There are many ways of becoming an SEO guy and learning how to get around with it even if you are not that technical in nature. Everyone starts from not knowing it but when you do, then the fun begins.

The Craziness of 2016 San Diego Comic Con

2016 San Diego Comic Con Tickets

Are you a lover for comic or into fantasy games like magic? You can be a fan of Japanese animation or have an obsession with cosplay – which is experiencing a costume piece. Whatever your love is for the fantasy and art of the things like comics and cartoons, you’ll probably want to stop at Comic-Con in San Diego. This agreement is the Mecca of all comic conventions. It is the grand daddy of all! SDCC each year becomes more and sell faster. SDCC is one of the greatest fantasy conventions in the United States and you will be able to meet and network with people from all over the world when you go to the Comic-Con convention in San Diego. There is nothing like a whole weekend of fantasy and fun, and that’s exactly what the agreement will bring you when you spend at least a day there if not every day he’s in town. The convention officially begins with “Preview Wednesday” and ends four days later on Sunday which is a day that hundreds of thousands of people Dread!

The Beginning of the San Diego Comic Con

The Comic-Con International in San Diego is an event that began in 1970 as Golden State Comic Book Convention. It was originally started supporting comics and pop art. This convention has grown to become one of the biggest comics and pop art conventions in the world and in recent years have had an amazing presence, and some of the biggest names in pop-art culture. Since the beginning in 1970, it was hardly 145 delegates and the convention in August of the same year, it rose to 300, and each year it has become a game to become what is today the largest convention pop art in the world with an amazing 130,000 delegates making up the largest comic convention hand in the world and one of the best to see and be seen.

The 2016 San Diego Comic Con

The 2016 Comic Con will not be less than one year before and if you have a specific event you want to see, maybe a good idea is to book 2016 San Diego Comic Con Tickets if you are keen to ensure you have a seat for that particular event. If you do not have a badge, you are more than likely not going to be able to get and you may miss an opportunity to miss your favorite artist or writer.

SDCC are things for people of all ages to enjoy. The first convention was strictly on comics – now Hollywood intervened and changed the way the world looks comics. The first thing people think of when referring to “Hollywood” is movies. There are a ton of comic books that turned into movies to attract a base of more fans. Most movies are based off Marvel Comics and you can look forward to The Avengers due out later this year. Book your tickets with

How to Find the Perfect Campervan

Travelling by campervan is one of the most exciting and freeing ways to travel around the country. When you’re travelling at your own pace, you get to make decisions that you wouldn’t be able to make if you were on a bus or a plane. You can take detours to see sights that might be exciting, you can linger for longer in certain places, and you can skip entire parts of the trip that don’t seem promising. You don’t have to worry about missing your flight, checking into an airport, or finding a cab. You’re in complete control of your holiday. Because of these features, campervan hires are incredibly popular throughout Australia. Every year when the holiday season comes, it becomes difficult to find the right campervan. You need to know what you’re looking for before you rent.

How Many People Are Coming with You?

The first consideration has to be how many people are coming with you. If you’re travelling alone, you only need a campervan that sleeps one person. If you’re travelling with a partner, you might choose a campervan that sleeps one person and just share a bed. If you’re travelling with multiple people who need separate sleeping quarters, you’re obviously going to need a bigger campervan. When you rent a campervan, the number of sleeping accommodations is your first consideration.

Select Your Features

Once you’ve narrowed it down to a certain number of sleeping accommodations, you’re ready to pick your features. These vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Sometimes, to save money, people will choose a campervan that doesn’t have a shower or a toilet. If that’s something that would interest you, it’s definitely the lower cost option. However, it would mean that you have to stop more often and, if you want to shower, you would have to find somewhere like a truck stop to shower. Typically, that’s going to cost you money as well. You should look up truck stops along the way to see how much showering at them would cost. When the cost is split among your passengers, it might not actually save you much money to forego the shower and toilet.

You should also look at the capabilities of the campervan as a vehicle. Certain campervans are equipped with off road capabilities. They have enhanced suspensions designed to absorb the constant abuse of driving off-road, and they’re also equipped with knobby tires that have enhanced tread. If you’re going to be driving to a rural campsite, you might need off-road capabilities.


Don’t forget to look at the fuel consumption statistics of the vehicles, if you can find them. Fuelling up your campervan is going to be one of your biggest budget items. A campervan that consumes a few more litres per kilometre could end up costing you hundreds of dollars on a long road trip. This is not your biggest concern, but if you’re looking for a way to choose between two similar campervans, be sure to look at fuel economy.

A campervan is the ultimate self-drive holiday vehicle. If you pick the right one, you should have a great holiday.

Myth or Miracle- The Abdominal Toning Belt


If you are planning to add some definition and tone to your abdominal muscles then a weight loss belt can work wonder for you. It can be the best tool to help you reach your fitness goals. The short answer to this problem is that these belts can help you get the desirable looks and in no ways, it means that you will get beautiful looking body at push of a button. Rather it is a specialized accessory that when used properly along with exercise and healthy diet can help you get the desired results. This means that while you will not be able to get great looking abs simply using such device but it can definitely help you get back to shape in quick time and in more effective ways.

How it works?

A weight loss belt is designed on the basis of contracting the abdominal muscles. It works on your abdominal muscles and over time, might help you to get them defined and toned and
burn belly fat
. However, the problem is that more than often, they are being marketed as simple marketing tools that help you get fit in short time. If you are obese and are not undergoing any physical exercise then most probably you are unlikely to see the desired results. They work up to a degree and are considered to be a miracle by some. Using properly provides with the most optimal results.

The Myth of Body Toning Belts

Whether you have seen commercial ads endorsing abdominal toning belts or seen videos of smiling people using them, you might have never seen all the running, dieting and workout that goes along with the use of these strap on the abdominal toning. The biggest myth is that you will put in on, use it continuously for a few days or weeks and will start seeing the results. The truth is, if you are not doing workout on your body outside the abdominal toning belt, you might not get the same effective results that you have seen on commercials and other advertisement videos.

Complimenting Your Abdominal Toning Belt

If you wish to maximize the results with these toning belts, here is a list of thing you can do. Firstly, be serious about toning, defining and strengthening your abdominal muscles and start eating right. Many people tend to not look great and get abdominal muscles as they have layer of fat on the top of them. Start eating healthy and start regular exercise in order to get rid of the excess fat.

Create a calorie deficiency in to your body to force it to lose the extra weight. Dieting and right combination of exercise helps to let you see the results quick and fairly. Once you start diminishing on weighing scale, you can use the abdominal toning belt to define your abdominal muscles. By doing so, you are complimenting your hard work and making the belt act as a miracle. It will definitely help you develop abdominal muscle over time.

Impact of Thailand export of ASEAN Economic Community

Thailand export

Impact of Thailand export of ASEAN Economic Community

ASEAN or the famous Association of Southeast Asian nations was formed in 1967 with a primary objective of creating mutual beneficial relationship amongst the members. It also aims to create stable political and economic environment within the region. ASEAN paves a way for Asian Economic Community. In many ways, it is very much similar to the European Union just with a difference that under ASEAN the member countries retain their sovereignty and economic independence.

The primary objective of ASEAN is to promote and enable the growth in social, cultural and economic areas that provide equal and mutual prosperity for all the member countries. A Strong focus is being laid on social and political harmony amongst countries, making the region safe and peaceful. Other areas covered in the section are:

  • Promotion of Southeast Asian Studies
  • Assistance in training and research for ASEAN jobs
  • Collaboration of social, technical, cultural, scientific, administrative, B2B fields
  • Ensuring cooperation with the regional and international organization with similar purposes and aim
  • Collaboration in utilization of industry and agriculture to expand trade

The ASEAN economic community was ratified in 2008. Specific initiatives include the move to integrate new members in Asian Economic Community and to work on reducing the development gap between the participating nations. Thailand has been a member of the community since inception, however, it is currently falling behind others with regards to the members while implementing some of the initiatives laid by ASEAN. The political and civil unrest had led to waylaid in several missions.

There are several reasons why Thailand can be seen as an emerging nation in the ASEAN-EC. The first is that it is aiming to make its population adequately proficient in the English language. The second one is that small to large sized businesses on board, B2B companies need to play an integrating role with the ASEAN community.

The third and one of the most important areas is to combat the resistance to expanding foreign ownership of properties and business. The concept of ASEAN free trade is fundamental of the charter and also a key member of the implementation of the initiative.

Thailand is touted to fulfill the AEC measures to as high as 86% overall, which is much higher than the usual ASEAN countries average of about 80%. It is, in many aspects, better than its counterparts. This is a positive sign that indicates the potential of Thailand and Thailand trades in manifesting a beneficiary and successful role in the ASEAN community.

Only time can tell how and what a big success Thailand can make in overcoming the obstacles it is currently facing to achieve full implementation of the AEC blueprints. It is difficult to ensure instability minimization and making the general public on board but it certainly worthwhile. Enormous economic benefits for all levels in social and business communities will be the payoff for any hard work involved.

Understanding Different Seating Options before Buying Kentucky Derby Ticket

There are two things to consider before buying the Kentucky Derby ticket: seating option available and how much you can spend. For most of the people the seating arrangements are limited to the options below the 4th tier. The seating options beyond that are usually for the top celebrities or VIPs. The tickets to those stands are extremely expensive and thus not available easily. So, here are the choices for you.

General Admission:

If you are buying the general admission ticket then you will be able to get to the infield, standing room, and paddock area. With this ticket you will not get any seat. Also, there is no view of the racetrack. The ground floor and paddock areas get very crowded by noon. Therefore, it becomes quite difficult to stand there. But the lines for beer and food are not that bad as you may think. There might be long queue on the betting windows though, especially the smaller bet windows (under $50).

Infield is the part of the general admission tickets. They are of course the cheapest Kentucky Derby Tickets. Although it gets crowded everyone seems to be in the party mode on the Derby Day. There are large screens with 4K resolution so you can watch the race pretty much very clearly even when there is bright light.

1st and 2nd tier grandstands:

These grandstands are before the finish line. It is right at the front overlooking the race track. This is the bleacher style seating. It is divided into several sections. The section which is closest to the finish line is the most expensive. The tickets are fairly priced. But there are a few things you will want to know. During the race everyone stands up. If the person before you is taller than you then there is a good chance you will miss the race. Also, you will have to sit on the bleachers. Sitting there for 8 hours under the sun could be quite testing.

3rd tier grandstand:

This is a great option for those who want a nice view of the racetrack and are ready to spend a bit more but not really too much. This stand is priced at around $1000 and offers some bit of protection from the elements as well. There are seats with back so it gets a little more comfortable. The stand is elevated and hence you will be able to see the race easily. Also, the first three rows of the stand have no cover and are exposed. The remaining rows are covered. It offers the box style seating and has folding chairs.

More premium options

If you are ready to spend more then there are some really cool options for you. The seating gets more comfortable and the view gets better as the prices go up. You have the Grandstand Terrace, Clubhouse Section 110, Lower Clubhouse, 2nd Tier Clubhouse, 3rd Tier Clubhouse, and of course the Courtyard.

Most of the tickets are available online. There are some sites that also sell the Kentucky Derby tickets at the discounted price. Check this website: to find out more.